What is the maximum voltage can I safely apply to the ceramic and still avoid depoling?
-- Soft PZT devices 5-7 volts/mill*
-- Hard PZT devices 15-20 volts/mill*
Keep in mind that operating temperature, stress and duty cycle can affect these values and could shorten the life of the product and or cause depoling.
*mill means 1/1000 inch of Silver electrode area.
What is the maximum power can I apply to hard PZT?
Normally you can apply 20 watts/square inch of radiating surface area.
How can I calculate the displacement certain Voltage will cause on a PZT?
Displacement = voltage applied x the d33 value.
How does a PZT materials ages?
The rate of aging of a Hard PZT material is up to 2 %/decade.
SUGGESTION FOR SOLDERING WIRE LEADS TO OUR CERAMICS
The average Curie temperature for our Piezo ceramics is around 250°C. For soldering small items, the soldering method we suggest is: use at least 3% Silver content solder material, and the soldering temperature should be 250°C-270°C within 2 seconds. Longer than that it may cause the transducer to loose its Piezoelectric properties as well cause the Silver electrode to peel off.
If needed, we have a Lead free Silver solder material on the following link: https://www.steminc.com/PZT/en/lead-free-no-clean-flux-core-silver-solder